Expert python-r1 usage

The APIs described in this chapter are powerful but even harder to use than those described in python-r1 chapter. You should not consider using them unless you have a proper ninja training.

Partially restricting Python implementation

There are packages that have been ported to Python 3 only partially. They may still have some optional dependencies that support Python 2 only, they may have some components that do not support Python 3 yet. The opposite is also possible — some of the features being available only for Python 3.

There are two approaches to this problem. You can either skip features (ignore USE flags) if the necessary implementation is not enabled, or you can use REQUIRED_USE to enforce at least one interpreter having the requested feature.

Skipping specific tasks can be done via investigating ${EPYTHON}. If USE flags are involved, you will probably also need to use python_gen_cond_dep with additional parameters restricting dependencies to available targets.

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=7

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python2_7 python3_{6,7,8} pypy{,3} )
 PYTHON_REQ_USE="threads(+)"
 inherit distutils-r1

 DESCRIPTION="HTTP library for human beings"
 HOMEPAGE="http://python-requests.org/"
 SRC_URI="mirror://pypi/${P:0:1}/${PN}/${P}.tar.gz"

 LICENSE="Apache-2.0"
 SLOT="0"
 KEYWORDS="~amd64 ~arm ~arm64 ~sparc ~x86 ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux"
 IUSE="socks5 +ssl test"
 RESTRICT="!test? ( test )"

 RDEPEND="
     >=dev-python/certifi-2017.4.17[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     >=dev-python/chardet-3.0.2[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     <dev-python/chardet-4[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     >=dev-python/idna-2.5[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     <dev-python/idna-3[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     <dev-python/urllib3-1.26[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     socks5? ( >=dev-python/PySocks-1.5.6[${PYTHON_USEDEP}] )
     ssl? (
         >=dev-python/cryptography-1.3.4[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         >=dev-python/pyopenssl-0.14[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     )
 "

 BDEPEND="
     dev-python/setuptools[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     test? (
         $(python_gen_cond_dep '
             ${RDEPEND}
             dev-python/pytest[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             dev-python/pytest-httpbin[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             dev-python/pytest-mock[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             >=dev-python/PySocks-1.5.6[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ' 'python*')
     )
 "

 python_test() {
     # tests hang with pypy & pypy3
     [[ ${EPYTHON} == pypy* ]] && continue

     epytest
 }

Enforcing implementations is done via putting || block with all targets providing the feature in REQUIRED_USE. The eclass provides python_gen_useflags function to print valid flag names for specified implementation list. Please always use this function instead of listing actual flag names as it handled phasing implementations out gracefully. python_gen_cond_dep should also be called with matching target list.

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=7

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python3_{6,7,8} )
 PYTHON_REQ_USE="sqlite"
 inherit distutils-r1

 DESCRIPTION="Toolkit to convert between many translation formats"
 HOMEPAGE="https://github.com/translate/translate"
 SRC_URI="https://github.com/translate/translate/releases/download/${PV}/${P}.tar.gz"

 LICENSE="GPL-2"
 SLOT="0"
 KEYWORDS="amd64 arm64 x86 ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux"
 IUSE="+subtitles"
 REQUIRED_USE="${PYTHON_REQUIRED_USE}
     subtitles? ( || ( $(python_gen_useflags python3_{6,7}) ) )"

 DEPEND=">=dev-python/six-1.10.0[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 RDEPEND="${DEPEND}
     !dev-python/pydiff
     app-text/iso-codes
     >=dev-python/chardet-3.0.4[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     >=dev-python/lxml-3.5[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     >=dev-python/pycountry-18.5.26[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     >=dev-python/python-levenshtein-0.12.0[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     sys-devel/gettext
     subtitles? (
         $(python_gen_cond_dep '
             media-video/gaupol[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ' python3_{6,7})
     )
 "

Restricting interpreters for python_setup

A specific case of the restriction described above is when the build step supports a subset of Python targets for the runtime part. This could happen e.g. if package’s Python bindings have been ported to Python 3 but the test suite or building tooling still requires Python 2.

To support this use case, python_setup can optionally take a list of implementations. This list must be a subset of PYTHON_COMPAT, and only implementation on the list can be used by python_setup. Note that you also need to set matching REQUIRED_USE, as otherwise the function will fail if the user does not enable any of the supported targets.

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=6

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python2_7 python3_{5,6,7} )

 inherit python-r1 toolchain-funcs

 DESCRIPTION="Python extension module generator for C and C++ libraries"
 HOMEPAGE="https://www.riverbankcomputing.com/software/sip/intro"
 SRC_URI="https://www.riverbankcomputing.com/static/Downloads/${PN}/${PV}/${P}.tar.gz"

 # Sub-slot based on SIP_API_MAJOR_NR from siplib/sip.h
 SLOT="0/12"
 LICENSE="|| ( GPL-2 GPL-3 SIP )"
 KEYWORDS="alpha amd64 arm arm64 ~hppa ia64 ppc ppc64 ~sparc x86 ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux ~ppc-macos ~x64-macos ~x86-macos"
 REQUIRED_USE="${PYTHON_REQUIRED_USE}
     || ( $(python_gen_useflags 'python2*') )"

 RDEPEND="${PYTHON_DEPS}"
 DEPEND="${RDEPEND}
     sys-devel/bison
     sys-devel/flex

 src_prepare() {
     python_setup 'python2*'
     "${EPYTHON}" build.py prepare || die
     default
 }

 src_configure() {
     configuration() {
         local myconf=(
             "${EPYTHON}"
             "${S}"/configure.py
             --bindir="${EPREFIX}/usr/bin"
             --destdir="$(python_get_sitedir)"
             --incdir="$(python_get_includedir)"
         )
         echo "${myconf[@]}"
         "${myconf[@]}" || die
     }
     python_foreach_impl run_in_build_dir configuration
 }

 src_compile() {
     python_foreach_impl run_in_build_dir default
 }

 src_install() {
     installation() {
         emake DESTDIR="${D}" install
         python_optimize
     }
     python_foreach_impl run_in_build_dir installation

     einstalldocs
 }

The distutils-r1 equivalent of python_setup parameters is the DISTUTILS_ALL_SUBPHASE_IMPLS variable. Alternatively to global scope, it can be set in an early phase function (prior to any sub-phase call).

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=5

 PYTHON_COMPAT=(
     pypy
     python3_5 python3_6 python3_7
     python2_7
 )
 PYTHON_REQ_USE='bzip2(+),ssl(+),threads(+)'
 inherit distutils-r1

 DESCRIPTION="Portage is the package management and distribution system for Gentoo"
 HOMEPAGE="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Project:Portage"
 SRC_URI="mirror://gentoo/${P}.tar.bz2"

 LICENSE="GPL-2"
 KEYWORDS="~alpha ~amd64 ~arm ~arm64 ~hppa ~ia64 ~m68k ~mips ~ppc ~ppc64 ~riscv ~s390 ~sh ~sparc ~x86"
 SLOT="0"
 IUSE="epydoc"
 REQUIRED_USE="epydoc? ( $(python_gen_useflags 'python2*') )"

 DEPEND="
     >=app-arch/tar-1.27
     >=sys-apps/sed-4.0.5 sys-devel/patch
     epydoc? (
         $(python_gen_cond_dep '
             >=dev-python/epydoc-2.0[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ' 'python2*')
     )"
 RDEPEND="
     >=app-arch/tar-1.27
     dev-lang/python-exec:2
     >=sys-apps/sed-4.0.5
     app-shells/bash:0[readline]
     >=app-admin/eselect-1.2
     elibc_glibc? ( >=sys-apps/sandbox-2.2 )
     kernel_linux? ( sys-apps/util-linux )
     >=app-misc/pax-utils-0.1.17"
 PDEPEND="
     >=net-misc/rsync-2.6.4
     userland_GNU? ( >=sys-apps/coreutils-6.4 )"

 pkg_setup() {
     use epydoc && DISTUTILS_ALL_SUBPHASE_IMPLS=( python2.7 )
 }

 python_compile_all() {
     if use epydoc; then
         esetup.py epydoc
     fi
 }

Note that when the restriction is caused by dependencies rather than package’s files, the any-r1 API described below is preferable to this.

Disjoint build dependencies (any-r1 API)

Some packages have disjoint sets of runtime and pure build-time dependencies. The former need to be built for all enabled implementations, the latter only for one of them. The any-r1 API in python-r1 is specifically suited for expressing that.

Let’s consider an example package that uses Sphinx with a plugin to build documentation. Naturally, you’re going to build the documents only once, not separately for every enabled target.

Using regular python-r1 API

If you were using the regular API, you’d have to use ${PYTHON_USEDEP} on the dependencies. The resulting code could look like the following:

BDEPEND="
    doc? (
        dev-python/sphinx[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
        dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
    )"

src_compile() {
    ...

    if use doc; then
        python_setup
        emake -C docs html
    fi
}

If your package is built with support for Python 3.6, 3.7 and 3.8, then this dependency string will enforce the same targets for Sphinx and the theme. However, in practice it will only be used through Python 3.8. Normally, this is not such a big deal.

Now imagine your package supports Python 2.7 as well, while Sphinx does not anymore. This means that your package will force downgrade to the old version of dev-python/sphinx even though it will not be used via Python 2.7 at all.

Using any-r1 API with python-r1

As the name suggests, the any-r1 API resembles the API used by python-any-r1 eclass. The disjoint build-time dependencies are declared using python_gen_any_dep, and need to be tested via python_check_deps() function. The presence of the latter function activates the alternate behavior of python_setup. Instead of selecting one of the enabled targets, it will run it to verify installed dependencies and use one having all dependencies satisfied.

 BDEPEND="
     doc? (
         $(python_gen_any_dep '
             dev-python/sphinx[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ')
     )"

 python_check_deps() {
     has_version "dev-python/sphinx[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]" &&
     has_version "dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

 src_compile() {
     ...

     if use doc; then
         python_setup
         emake -C docs html
     fi
 }

Note that python_setup may select an implementation that is not even enabled via PYTHON_TARGETS. The goal is to try hard to avoid requiring user to change USE flags on dependencies if possible.

An interesting side effect of that is that the supported targets in the dependencies can be a subset of the one in package. For example, we have used this API to add Python 3.8 support to packages before dev-python/sphinx supported it — the eclass implicitly forced using another implementation for Sphinx.

Different sets of build-time dependencies

Let’s consider the case when Python is used at build-time for something else still. In that case, we want python_setup to work unconditionally but enforce dependencies only with doc flag enabled.

 BDEPEND="
     doc? (
         $(python_gen_any_dep '
             dev-python/sphinx[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ')
     )"

 python_check_deps() {
     use doc || return 0
     has_version "dev-python/sphinx[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]" &&
     has_version "dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

 src_compile() {
     python_setup

     ...

     use doc && emake -C docs html
 }

Note that python_setup behaves according to the any-r1 API here. While it will not enforce doc dependencies with doc flag disabled, it will use any interpreter that is supported and installed, even if it is not enabled explicitly in PYTHON_TARGETS.

Using any-r1 API with distutils-r1

The alternate build dependency API also integrates with distutils-r1 eclass. If python_check_deps() is declared, the python_*_all() sub-phase functions are called with the interpreter selected according to any-r1 rules.

 BDEPEND="
     doc? (
         $(python_gen_any_dep '
             dev-python/sphinx[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ')
     )"

 python_check_deps() {
     use doc || return 0
     has_version "dev-python/sphinx[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]" &&
     has_version "dev-python/sphinx_rtd_theme[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

 python_compile_all() {
     use doc && emake -C docs html
 }

Note that distutils-r1 calls python_setup unconditionally, therefore python_check_deps() needs to account for that.

Normally you won’t have to use this API for Sphinx though — distutils_enable_sphinx does precisely that for you.

Combining any-r1 API with implementation restrictions

Both APIs described above can be combined. This can be used when build-time scripts support a subset of implementations supported by the package itself, and by its build-time dependencies. For example, if the package uses dev-util/scons build system with SConstruct files using Python 2 construct.

There are two approaches to achieve that: either the build-time implementation list needs to be passed to python_setup, or python_check_deps needs to explicitly reject unsupported targets. In both cases, a matching implementation list needs to be passed to python_gen_any_dep.

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=7

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python2_7 python3_6 )
 inherit python-r1 toolchain-funcs

 DESCRIPTION="GPS daemon and library for USB/serial GPS devices and GPS/mapping clients"
 HOMEPAGE="https://gpsd.gitlab.io/gpsd/"
 SRC_URI="mirror://nongnu/${PN}/${P}.tar.gz"

 LICENSE="BSD"
 SLOT="0/24"
 KEYWORDS="~amd64 ~arm ~ppc ~ppc64 ~sparc ~x86"

 IUSE="python"
 REQUIRED_USE="
     python? ( ${PYTHON_REQUIRED_USE} )"

 RDEPEND="
     >=net-misc/pps-tools-0.0.20120407
     python? ( ${PYTHON_DEPS} )"
 DEPEND="${RDEPEND}
     $(python_gen_any_dep '>=dev-util/scons-2.3.0[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]' -2)
     virtual/pkgconfig"

 python_check_deps() {
     has_version ">=dev-util/scons-2.3.0[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

 src_configure() {
     myesconsargs=(
         prefix="${EPREFIX}/usr"
         libdir="\$prefix/$(get_libdir)"
         udevdir="$(get_udevdir)"
         chrpath=False
         gpsd_user=gpsd
         gpsd_group=uucp
         nostrip=True
         manbuild=False
         $(use_scons python)
     )

     # SConstruct uses py2 constructs
     python_setup -2
 }
 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=7

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python2_7 python3_6 )
 inherit python-r1 toolchain-funcs

 DESCRIPTION="GPS daemon and library for USB/serial GPS devices and GPS/mapping clients"
 HOMEPAGE="https://gpsd.gitlab.io/gpsd/"
 SRC_URI="mirror://nongnu/${PN}/${P}.tar.gz"

 LICENSE="BSD"
 SLOT="0/24"
 KEYWORDS="~amd64 ~arm ~ppc ~ppc64 ~sparc ~x86"

 IUSE="python"
 REQUIRED_USE="
     python? ( ${PYTHON_REQUIRED_USE} )"

 RDEPEND="
     >=net-misc/pps-tools-0.0.20120407
     python? ( ${PYTHON_DEPS} )"
 DEPEND="${RDEPEND}
     $(python_gen_any_dep '>=dev-util/scons-2.3.0[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]' -2)
     virtual/pkgconfig"

 python_check_deps() {
     python_is_python3 && return 1
     has_version ">=dev-util/scons-2.3.0[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

 src_configure() {
     myesconsargs=(
         prefix="${EPREFIX}/usr"
         libdir="\$prefix/$(get_libdir)"
         udevdir="$(get_udevdir)"
         chrpath=False
         gpsd_user=gpsd
         gpsd_group=uucp
         nostrip=True
         manbuild=False
         $(use_scons python)
     )

     python_setup
 }