python-any-r1 — build-time dependency

The python-any-r1 eclass is used to enable Python support in packages needing it purely at build time.

Eclass reference: python-any-r1.eclass(5)

Basic use for unconditional Python

The defining feature of this eclass is that it defines a pkg_setup phase. It normally calls python_setup function in order to find a suitable Python interpreter, and set the global environment appropriately.

This means that a most trivial package using an autotools-compatible build system that needs Python at build time could look like the following:

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=7

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python3_{6..8} )
 inherit python-any-r1

 DESCRIPTION="A repository of data files describing media player capabilities"
 HOMEPAGE="https://cgit.freedesktop.org/media-player-info/"
 SRC_URI="https://www.freedesktop.org/software/${PN}/${P}.tar.gz"

 LICENSE="BSD"
 SLOT="0"
 KEYWORDS="~alpha amd64 ~arm ~arm64 ~hppa ~ia64 ~mips ppc ppc64 ~sh ~sparc x86"
 IUSE=""

 RDEPEND=">=virtual/udev-208"
 DEPEND="${RDEPEND}"
 BDEPEND="
     ${PYTHON_DEPS}
     virtual/pkgconfig
 "

This ebuild demonstrates the absolute minimum working code. Only the three highlighted lines are specific to Python eclasses, plus the implicitly exported pkg_setup phase.

Dependencies

When depending on other Python packages, USE dependencies need to be declared in order to ensure that the dependencies would be built against the Python implementation used for the package. When Python dependencies need to be specified, ${PYTHON_DEPS} gets replaced by a call to python_gen_any_dep generator and a matching python_check_deps() function.

The python_gen_any_dep function accepts a template where literal ${PYTHON_USEDEP} is substituted with appropriate USE dependency. It generates an any-of (||) dependency that requires all the packages to use the same Python interpreter, for at least one of the supported implementations.

The python_check_deps() function needs to be declared by ebuild in order to test whether the implementation in question is suitable for building the package. In particular, it needs to verify whether the particular branch of the any-of was satisfied, or whether all dependencies were installed for the current interpreter. For that purpose, the function is called with PYTHON_USEDEP variable declared to the USE dependency string for the currently tested implementation.

This is best explained using an example:

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=6
 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python3_{6,7,8} )

 inherit meson python-any-r1

 DESCRIPTION="A file manager for Cinnamon, forked from Nautilus"
 HOMEPAGE="http://developer.linuxmint.com/projects/cinnamon-projects.html"
 SRC_URI="https://github.com/linuxmint/nemo/archive/${PV}.tar.gz -> ${P}.tar.gz"

 LICENSE="GPL-2+ LGPL-2+ FDL-1.1"
 SLOT="0"
 KEYWORDS="amd64 x86"
 IUSE=""

 DEPEND="
     $(python_gen_any_dep '
         dev-python/polib[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         dev-python/pygobject:3[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
     ')
 "

 python_check_deps() {
     has_version "dev-python/polib[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]" &&
     has_version "dev-python/pygobject:3[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

This means that the package will work with Python 3.6, 3.7 or 3.8, provided that its both dependencies have the same implementation enabled. The generated || dep ensures that this is true for at least one of them, while python_check_deps() verifies which branch was satisfied.

It is important to understand that this works correctly only if python_gen_any_dep and python_check_deps() match exactly. Furthermore, for any USE flag combination python_gen_any_dep must be called at most once. In particular, it is invalid to split the above example into multiple python_gen_any_dep calls.

Conditional Python use

In some packages, Python is only necessary with specific USE flag combinations. This is particularly common when Python is used for the test suite. In that case, the dependencies and pkg_setup call need to be wrapped in appropriate USE conditions:

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=7

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python3_{6,7} )
 inherit python-any-r1

 DESCRIPTION="Programmable Completion for bash"
 HOMEPAGE="https://github.com/scop/bash-completion"
 SRC_URI="https://github.com/scop/bash-completion/releases/download/${PV}/${P}.tar.xz"

 LICENSE="GPL-2+"
 SLOT="0"
 KEYWORDS="~alpha amd64 arm ~arm64 ~hppa ia64 ~mips ppc ~ppc64 ~s390 ~sh sparc x86 ~amd64-linux ~x86-linux ~ppc-macos ~x64-macos ~x86-macos ~m68k-mint ~sparc-solaris ~sparc64-solaris"
 IUSE="test"
 RESTRICT="!test? ( test )"

 RDEPEND=">=app-shells/bash-4.3_p30-r1:0"
 DEPEND="
     test? (
         ${RDEPEND}
         $(python_gen_any_dep '
             dev-python/pexpect[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             dev-python/pytest[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ')
     )"

 python_check_deps() {
     has_version -d "dev-python/pexpect[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]" &&
     has_version -d "dev-python/pytest[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

 pkg_setup() {
     use test && python-any-r1_pkg_setup
 }

Additional conditional dependencies

Another possible case is that Python is required unconditionally but some dependencies are required only conditionally to USE flags. The simplest way to achieve that is to use ${PYTHON_DEPS} globally and python_gen_any_dep in USE-conditional block, then express a similar condition in python_check_deps():

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=7

 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python3_{6,7} )
 inherit python-any-r1 cmake

 DESCRIPTION="Qt bindings for the Telepathy D-Bus protocol"
 HOMEPAGE="https://telepathy.freedesktop.org/"
 SRC_URI="https://telepathy.freedesktop.org/releases/${PN}/${P}.tar.gz"

 LICENSE="LGPL-2.1"
 SLOT="0"
 KEYWORDS="amd64 ~arm arm64 x86"
 IUSE="test"
 RESTRICT="!test? ( test )"

 BDEPEND="${PYTHON_DEPS}
     test? (
         $(python_gen_any_dep '
             dev-python/dbus-python[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
         ')
     )
 "

 python_check_deps() {
     use test || return 0
     has_version -b "dev-python/dbus-python[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

Multiple sets of conditional dependencies

The hardest case for this eclass is to declare multiple Python dependencies conditional to different USE flags. While there are multiple possible ways of doing that, the least error-prone is to move USE conditional blocks inside python_gen_any_dep:

 # Copyright 1999-2020 Gentoo Authors
 # Distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2

 EAPI=6
 PYTHON_COMPAT=( python3_6 )

 inherit gnome2 python-any-r1

 DESCRIPTION="GObject library for accessing the freedesktop.org Secret Service API"
 HOMEPAGE="https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Libsecret"

 LICENSE="LGPL-2.1+ Apache-2.0" # Apache-2.0 license is used for tests only
 SLOT="0"
 KEYWORDS="~alpha amd64 arm arm64 ia64 ~mips ppc ppc64 sparc x86"
 IUSE="+introspection test"
 RESTRICT="!test? ( test )"
 # Tests fail with USE=-introspection, https://bugs.gentoo.org/655482
 REQUIRED_USE="test? ( introspection )"

 DEPEND="
     test? (
         $(python_gen_any_dep '
             dev-python/mock[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             dev-python/dbus-python[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]
             introspection? ( dev-python/pygobject:3[${PYTHON_USEDEP}] )
         ')
     )
 "

 python_check_deps() {
     if use introspection; then
         has_version --host-root "dev-python/pygobject:3[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]" || return 1
     fi
     has_version --host-root "dev-python/mock[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]" &&
     has_version --host-root "dev-python/dbus-python[${PYTHON_USEDEP}]"
 }

 pkg_setup() {
     use test && python-any-r1_pkg_setup
 }